Retiring during a recession can present a set of unique financial challenges, and that can be scary for some people. Besides generally disrupting your retirement plan, you may see a decrease in the value of your retirement savings and investments, living expenses and taxes. Safeguarding your assets and maintaining a long-term perspective can help protect your retirement savings during a recession.
What’s a recession?A recession is when the economy goes into a downswing for two or more quarters – this typically means businesses will make less money, and people will spend less money, too. You can think of it like having a cold. The economy still functions, just not as well as it usually does and needs time to recover. Recessions can range in economic impact and timing, generally lasting anywhere from a few months to a year or more. The unfortunate part is that recessions tend to affect everything from the economy at large all the way down to your individual household.
How does a recession affect retirees?
A recession can significantly impact a retired person’s financial situation. During a recession, investment values can drop, causing a decline in the value of your retirement savings and potentially affecting your future financial security. Additionally, if you depend on investment income to supplement your retirement income, a recession can reduce the amount of money you receive from those investments.
If you're on a fixed income, such as a pension or Social Security, the purchasing power of your income may decrease during a recession as things get more expensive. This can make it harder for you to cover your expenses, especially if unexpected costs or healthcare expenses happen.
It's also possible that businesses may cut back on hiring or reduce their workforce, making it harder for you to find part-time or freelance work if you need to supplement your retirement income.
A recession can have far-reaching consequences for retirees. That’s why it can be helpful to have a financial plan in place to weather the storm and protect your financial future.
How to prepare to retire during a recession
If you want to know how to prepare for a recession if you are retired, you’ll need to consider a few things. Keep in mind your day-to-day financial situation, your investments, your healthcare costs and living expenses, just to name a few things. We'll break down in a bit more detail the basics of what you should keep in mind as you make your preparations for retirement during a recession.
1. Evaluate your finances
Before deciding to retire during a recession, it's important for you to evaluate your finances carefully. This will help ensure that you're in a strong financial position to weather the economic downturn and maintain your standard of living. Here are some key financial metrics that you should consider:
Debt: Make sure you plan to pay off any high-interest debt, such as credit card balances or personal loans before you retire.
Savings: Consider how to protect your retirement savings from a recession. Evaluate the amount of money you have saved in emergency funds and retirement accounts and try to have enough to cover at least six to 12 months' worth of living expenses.
Investments: Review your investment portfolio to assess its risk level. Consider if you need to adjust your investment strategy to help with the market uncertainty during a recession.
Income: Calculate your expected retirement income, including Social Security, pensions, and any investment income, and make sure that it will be enough to cover your expenses.
Expenses: Make a realistic budget for your retirement years, taking into account any changes in your spending habits that may occur during a recession.
Healthcare: Consider the cost of healthcare in retirement and make sure you have a plan to pay for it, whether through insurance, Medicare, or other means.
Tax planning: Evaluate your tax situation, as your retirement income may be subject to different tax rates, and make sure that you have a plan in place to minimize your tax liability.
By carefully evaluating these key financial metrics, you can get a clearer picture of your financial situation and make informed decisions about retiring during a recession.
2. Review your portfolio
As you evaluate your next steps prior to retirement, you should consider reviewing your finances to ensure that you’re in a good position with your retirement income. Here are a few things to consider when reviewing your portfolio as you prepare for retirement during a recession.
401(k) and IRA accounts: Review the balances in your retirement accounts to figure out the amount of money you have saved for retirement and whether you need to adjust your savings strategy.
Social Security: Review your Social Security statement to see how much you can expect to receive from Social Security in retirement and when you should start taking benefits.
Other sources of income: Review any other sources of income that you may have in retirement, such as a pension, rental income or investment income, and make sure they'll be enough to cover your expenses.
3. Understand health expenses
As you get older understanding Medicare coverage and the benefits it can provide for you is important. Medicare is a federal health insurance program for people 65 and older and those with certain disabilities. There are several parts to Medicare coverage, including:
Part A: Covers hospital stays, skilled nursing care, and hospice care.
Part B: Covers medical services and supplies, such as doctor visits, lab tests, and medical equipment.
Part C: Also known as Medicare Advantage, these plans combine Parts A and B, and often Part D (prescription drug coverage), into one plan.
Part D: Covers prescription drugs.
While Medicare can provide coverage for many of your health expenses, it's important to budget for other medical expenses in retirement because it doesn't cover everything. You may be subject to some coinsurance payments, the cost of dental care, eye exams, hearing aids and more.
You should also consider budgeting for the cost of supplemental insurance to help cover these out-of-pocket expenses and have a plan for potential long-term care expenses, such as assisted living or nursing home care.
4. Lower your living expenses
Managing your expenses is an important part of ensuring a comfortable retirement as a retiree. Here are some budgeting ideas that can help you lower your expenses and increase your savings:
Trim your monthly spending: Take a close look at your monthly expenses and see where you can make cuts. You may be able to save money by reducing your cable or phone bill, cutting back on eating out, or traveling less.
Take advantage of discounts: Take advantage of senior discounts and other discounts offered by retailers and service providers.
Reduce your housing costs: If you own your home, consider downsizing to a smaller or more affordable property. If you’re a renter, consider negotiating your rent or exploring alternative housing options, such as shared housing.
Cut back on entertainment expenses: Instead of going out to the movies or eating out, consider alternative entertainment options, such as reading a book or having friends over for dinner.
Take control of your healthcare expenses: Make sure you have the right insurance coverage, consider using generic drugs whenever possible, and take advantage of preventive care to reduce the cost of healthcare in retirement.
By following these budgeting ideas, you could reduce your expenses and increase your savings, helping to ensure a comfortable and secure retirement.
Should you delay your retirement?
There really isn’t a right or wrong answer. Because how long a recession will last is often unpredictable, it’s hard to say whether or not delaying your retirement until it’s over would be helpful. There are some things to consider as you decide if delaying your retirement is the right choice for you:
Increased savings: The longer you work, the more time you have to save for retirement, which can help you build a larger nest egg.
Higher Social Security benefits: Your Social Security benefits are based on your highest 35 years of earnings. By delaying retirement, you can potentially increase your benefits.
More time to pay off debt: If you have high-interest debt, such as credit card balances or personal loans, working longer can give you more time to pay it off.
Improved health: Staying active and engaged in the workforce can have a positive impact on your physical and mental health.
It really all comes down to your financial situation and what you feel most comfortable with.
Frequently asked questions about retiring during a recession
We understand that trying to make an informed decision about the risks of retiring during a recession can be a challenge. That’s why we’ve put together some frequently asked questions to provide you with a bit more insight.
Is it okay to retire during a recession?
The decision to retire during a recession should be based on your personal circumstances and goals, not just on the state of the economy. If you feel confident in your financial security and retirement plans, then retiring during a recession could be a viable option for you. However, you should understand that during a recession, there might be a decrease in the value of your investments and retirement savings, which can affect your long-term financial stability. On the other hand, retiring during a recession can also have some benefits, such as lower living expenses, reduced taxes, and increased Social Security benefits. Evaluate your options with a financial professional.
How does a recession affect retirees?
A recession can impact your retirement in several ways. It can reduce the value of your retirement savings and investments as the stock market may decrease and interest rates may drop, reducing the returns on your fixed-income investments. However, it can also bring some benefits as living expenses may decrease and taxes may be reduced, providing some relief on your fixed income. You may also see an increase in your Social Security benefits during a recession as the government takes steps to provide additional support to retirees. The impact of a recession on your retirement will ultimately depend on your specific financial situation and goals. Reviewing your finances and planning ahead can help ensure that a recession doesn't derail your retirement plans.
How can I protect my retirement savings from a recession?
To protect your retirement savings from a recession, there are several steps you can take. Regularly review and adjust your budget to ensure you're saving enough for retirement. Consider increasing your contributions to retirement accounts, such as a 401(k) or IRA, during good economic times to build up a buffer. Make sure you have a solid understanding of your expenses, income sources and financial needs, and create a plan to address potential financial emergencies during a recession. This could include having an emergency fund or considering ways to reduce expenses in case of a job loss or income reduction. Consider talking to a financial professional about your specific retirement planning needs.